Periodontitis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Periodontitis is a severe infection in gum that harms the bones and soft tissues that are instrumental in supporting your teeth. Periodontal diseases can result in loss of tooth or can also develop a heart attack or stroke and some related serious health issues.

Albeit, periodontitis is common, it can be prevented. It is caused due to improper oral hygiene. Regular brushing and flossing along with frequent professional dental intervention can immensely reduce the probability of periodontitis development.



There are several causes that lead to periodontitis, which include acute deficiency of vitamin C resulting in scurvy. This condition leads to spongy and bleeding gum and ultimately tooth loss. In addition, juvenile periodontitis has a strong genetic influence. It is often caused due to plaque building and a fusion of sticky bacterial substance and bacteria layered on the teeth.

If the plaque remains on your teeth for two or three days, it solidifies under your gum line and become tartar (calculus). This stage of plaque is hard enough to remove at home and acts as a breeding ground for bacteria. You need to remove and clean the tartar by brushing and flossing or you may need the help of your dentist for removing the tartar.

The longer plaque and tartar stay on your teeth, the greater damage it can cause. At the initial stage, it just inflames the gingiva, the gum covering the base of your teeth. This condition is termed as gingivitis, which is the first stage of periodontal disease. But persistent inflammation may lead to development of pockets between your teeth and gums packed with plaque, tartar and bacteria. Over time, these deposits get deeper due to more accumulation of bacteria and eventually reach your gum tissue leading to loss of bone and tissue. It can eventually lead to shedding of the few teeth too.

Damage of bone due to periodontitis can lead to receding gum lines. It may also cause deep rift between individual tooth and its socket. These splits are termed as periodontal pockets, and initially shallow periodontal pockets often deepen and finally become deep enough unable to support the adjacent tooth.


You can yourself monitor the warning signs of the disease. There are occasions when you did not witness and symptoms of periodontitis, but it might have spread into the bone without indicating any sign. Majority of people does not feel any pain because of gum disease and hence it’s often not noticed. It is suggested by the dentist to go for regular dental checkups, to identify any periodontic condition.

The triggers of gum disease include:

  • Bleeding gums while brushing teeth
  • Painful, tender, swollen, and red gums
  • Sagging gums parting away from the teeth
  • Prolonged bad breath
  • Pus between gums and the teeth
  • Loose teeth
  • Change in teeth fitting when you bite
  • Shift the fitting of partial dentures

All these symptoms are the indicator that you should immediately contact your dentist for better guidance.


Your dentist may investigate the firmness and color of your gums and examine the teeth for its looseness. They will also examine how your teeth fit together during your bite. For this X-rays can be conducted to analyze the health of the bones that support the teeth.
In addition, a technique termed as periodontal probing is also conducted, which is the landmark for testing of gum disease. In this technique, a small metal probe is used as a measuring instrument, which is slightly inserted between the gum and the tooth to analyze the depth of the pocket formed between the gum and the tooth.


There are various procedures to treat periodontitis, based on its condition. The objective of periodontitis treatment is cleaning the pockets of bacteria thoroughly and stopping further damage. Treatment can be conducted by a dentist. Different types of treatment include:

Nonsurgical Treatments

If you’re not suffering from advanced periodontitis, less invasive treatment procedure can be followed including:

Scaling – This process discards bacteria and tartar from the surfaces of your mouth and beneath your gums. An ultrasound device is used to perform this treatment.

Root Planning – In this process the root surfaces are smoothened for stopping further building of tartar.

Antibiotics – In this procedure your periodontist may prescribe some topical or oral antibiotics for controlling and reducing bacterial infection. It may include an antibiotic mouth wash or insertion of gels or threads having antibiotics in the packets between your gums and teeth for deep cleaning.

Surgical Treatments

If unfortunately your periodontitis is at advanced state, it is quite possible that your gum tissue does not aptly respond to nonsurgical procedures. Under these circumstances, Periodontist may opt for dental surgery, including:

  • Flap Surgery – While performing this surgery small incision are created in your gum to lift back some section of gum tissues and exposing the roots for better planning and scaling. As periodontitis can damage bones too, it may require rebuilding prior to the suturing the gum tissue back in place. It may take one to three hours and it is done under the influence of local anesthesia.
  • Soft Tissue Grafts – It is done for correcting the gum line as it recedes due to periodontal disease. In this process a small quantity of tissue is removed from the palate or from any donor’s palate and it is attached to the affected place. It reduces future gum recession and the root is covered offering your teeth a cosmetically appeasing look.
  • Bone Grafting – In this process your own bone or donor’s bone is grafted in case your bone is damaged due to this disease. It holds your tooth firmly in place.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration – In this process, a particular substance of biocompatible fabric is placed between your tooth and bone, which prevents unwanted tissue from invading the healing part, enabling the bone to grow easily.
  • Enamel Matrix Derivative Application – Yet in another procedure a specialized gel is administered to the root of the tooth. This gel comprises of proteins found in growing tooth enamel and helps the development of healthy tissues and bones.

Flossing and brushing regularly can reduce the risk of periodontitis. Above said are the complete overviews of this disease if you happen to encounter any such situation. If periodontitis has already developed at advance stage, it is recommended to consult licensed Periodontistfor proper treatment.

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Dental Fillings

Why live with painful and unsightly cavities when you can have them filled by our dentists in a painless procedure!
In order to repair a cavity, the decayed portion of your tooth will be removed by your dentist. The portion of the tooth occupied by the decayed material will then be filled. Fillings are utilised to repair teeth that are broken, cracked, or that have cavities.

What Are The Steps For Filling Teeth?
Initially, a local anaesthetic will be injected into the area that surrounds the tooth. Novocaine is normally used. Then, a drill, laser, or air abrasion will be utilised to remove the area that is decayed. The type of instrument that is used will depend on the preference and training of your dentist, along with the extent and location of the tooth decay.

Your dentist will then test and probe the area of decay to ensure that all decayed material has been removed. After the removal of the decay, the space to be occupied by the filling will be cleaned so that all debris and bacteria are removed. If the area of the decay is close to the root, a liner constructed of a composite resin, glass ionomer or other type of material may be used in order to provide protection to the nerve. After the insertion of the filling, it will be finished and polished.

Additional steps are needed for fillings that are tooth-coloured. Subsequent to the removal of decay and cleaning of the area, the material that is tooth-coloured will be applied in layers. A specially designed light that hardens or cures each layer is used. After the completion of the multi-layering procedure, the composite material will be shaped by your dentist, excess material will be trimmed, and it will be polished.

Filling Materials Used
There are several types of filling materials that are currently available. Teeth may be filled with porcelain, gold, silver amalgam, or tooth-coloured composite resins. Silver amalgam is comprised of mercury with tin, silver, copper, and zinc mixed with it. The extent and location of the cavity, expense of filling material, insurance coverage of the patient, and the recommendation of the dentist will determine the kind of filling material that will best suit your needs

Gold Fillings

  • Extremely durable – will usually last for the life of the patient. Will not corrode.
  • Strength – Can withstand almost any chewing forces
  • Aesthetics – Some people prefer the look of gold to sliver amalgam


  • Expense – more costly than other types of material. Can be 10 X more costly than amalgam
  • Multiple Office Visits – requires a minimum of two visits
  • Aesthetics – some patients don’t like its appearance

Silver Amalgam Fillings

  • Durability – Normally lasts longer than composites. Normally lasts ten to fifteen years or more.
  • Strength – able to withstand all chewing forces
  • Expense – costs less than gold or composite fillings


  • Generally poor aesthetics – natural colour of teeth is not matched
  • Requires more space – A portion of the tooth that is healthy must be removed, at times, to provide a large enough area for the amalgam filling.
  • Discolouration – a hue that is greyish may be imparted to the adjacent tooth structure
  • Fractures and Cracks – All teeth expand and contract with temperature changes, which can cause cracking. However, amalgam materials may expand and contract to a greater extent than other materials, leading to an increased incidence of fractures and cracks.
  • Allergies – approximately 1% of patients have allergies to the mercury that is in silver amalgam

Composite Fillings – Tooth Coloured

  • Aesthetics – composites can be closely matched to the colour of the patient’s teeth. They are particularly useful for teeth that are visible
  • Bonding – composite fillings will bond chemically with a tooth and provide structural support to the tooth
  • Versatile – can also be utilised in the repair of broken, worn, or chipped teeth
  • Space requirement – at times less tooth material is needed to be removed in comparison to silver amalgam fillings when preparing a space for this filling.


  • Reduced durability – Composite fillings do not last as long as amalgams or gold. In addition, they often don’t hold up as well under the pressure of use, particularly if they are used to fill large cavities.
  • Takes Longer – due to the process needed to fill a tooth with composite materials, it takes longer in the dentists chair to place them.
  • More than one visit – if composites are being used for onlays or inlays, it may require more than one office visit
  • Chipping – composite materials are more likely to chip than amalgams
  • Cost – composite filling may cost twice as much as amalgam fillings

Additional Filling Materials
In addition to composite resins that are tooth coloured, there are two other types of tooth-coloured fillings. Glass ionomer and ceramics.

Glass Ionomer
This material is constructed of a specific type of glass and acrylic. It is commonly utilised on fillings that are beneath the gum line and for young children. This material releases fluoride, which may protect a tooth from additional decay. Nevertheless, glass ionomer is not as strong as composite resin and more prone to fracture and wear. It normally lasts for five years or less and the expense is similar to composites.

Usually constructed of porcelain. Ceramics are stain resistant, compared to composites, but are more abrasive. Ceramics are very durable, and usually last for 15 years or more, but, they are costly, and the expense can be similar to gold.

Porcelain Crown & Veneers

Rejuvenate Your Smile with Porcelain Crown and Veneers from Monash Dental Group
Remember; beautiful and aesthetically appealing cosmetic dentistry is not a matter of chance; it demands an experienced clinician who is sensitive to your unique needs and an expert dental ceramist who leverages the art and science of dentistry to deliver optimal results. At Monash Dental Group, we boast an expert team of experienced cosmetic dentists, who have extensive experience in fitting patients with porcelain veneers and crowns. Our first-class porcelain veneers and crowns are highly effective for your unique functional and cosmetic needs.

At Monash Dental Group, our products are expertly crafted to compliment your age, gender, expectations, and facial features. We leverage the expertise of the best dental ceramists to guarantee that the veneers and crowns are of premium quality, resilient, and possess excellent craftsmanship. We work diligently to provide you with a top-quality product that beautifully compliments your face, while simultaneously restoring the function and aesthetics of your natural teeth.

Porcelain Veneers
Typically, porcelain veneers are a form of thin laminates of chinaware that are securely bonded to the surface of the tooth. For diverse dental problems, it is one of the most aesthetically appealing means of enhancing your smile. Veneers are one of the most popular treatments for restoration of chips, spaces, fractures, unshapely and discoloured teeth, or misaligned and rotated teeth. They deliver an unmatched cosmetic makeover that allows alteration of shape, position, size, and the colour of your teeth. Monash Dental Group boasts experienced cosmetic dentists who deliver exceptional results with porcelain veneers. We feature:

  • Dramatic yet aesthetically beautiful and natural cosmetic dental enhancement
  • Durable, high quality, and permanent
  • Enhanced self esteem

The procedure typically requires two appointments. At first, the tooth is prepared for minimal reduction to make enough space for the porcelain veneer. A mould of the tooth is taken for fabrication, which takes approximately 2 weeks. In the next visit, the permanent veneer is bonded in place.

Crowns are a rigid and strong cap that restores the tooth to its natural function and anatomic contours, as well as protects the underlying tooth. In certain conditions, where veneers are not possible, crowns are a suitable option. Some of the scenarios in which crowns may be used include tooth fractures, large restorations, functionally compromised teeth, history of root canal therapy, and acute damage due to decay. There are a wide range of choices available in crowns and bridges.

Dental crown procedures take just two appointments, depending on the condition of your teeth and gums. First, the tooth is prepared for reduction and an impression is taken for fabrication. A temporary, plastic crown in fitted while the mould is being fabricated. In the next visit, the temporary crown is removed and the final crown is secured permanently into position. The fabrication procedure may take time depending on the type of crown.

Monash Dental Group is an expert in crowns and veneers, delivering matchless quality and desired results. The key benefits are:

  • Extensive protection and support to the compromised or damaged teeth
  • Natural and aesthetically enhanced appearance
  • Restoration of full functions and a confident smile

Contact the professionals at Monash Dental Group for more details on porcelain veneers and crowns. We guarantee excellent quality and fantastic results in a cost-effective manner.