All Possible Factors Leading to Periodontal Gum Diseases

Most often than not, gum disease; often called as gingivitis; is resultant to plaque, a sticky layer of bacteria that is formed on the teeth over time. If plaque is not treated by daily brushing and flossing between teeth, it leads to irritation and inflammation in gums. These irritated tissues of gum isolates from the teeth creating gape called pockets, where it keeps developing irritation. The entire process if left untreated may continue and can harm the bone and several tissues that supports the tooth.

Periodontal Disease

The major cause of gum disease is undoubtedly bacteria plaque, but there are several other risk factors that aids to this process of periodontal disease. On an average nearly 80% of individuals suffering from gum disease have been witnessed to have minimum one other reason behind their poor dental condition. Various factors are often involved like poor diet, viral infection, stress, wrong dental habits, and smoking – all play their part of role in acute necrotizing gingivitis disorder.

Some Prominent Factors Responsible for Gum Disease

Genetic Causes

As per studies of twins, the family medical histories and genetic disorders all suggest that heredity can be a risk factor in nearly 50% of patients suffering from periodontal disease. These genetic factors may include minor imperfections in the function of the immune system. Patients with these abnormalities are unable to combat bacteria, accountable for forming plaque and periodontal disease even if great oral hygiene is maintained. This is the reason children of those parents who are having periodontal disease are prone to develop these bacterial infections as much as 12 times more compared to a normal parent.


Tobacco and smoking is the most vital environmental/behavioral risk factor bringing you close to periodontal disease. The risk of severe disease increases with increased smoking. Smokers are at risk to develop tartar on their teeth compared to non smokers and have deeper pockets between their gums and teeth. They are also more vulnerable to lose bone and tissue supporting the teeth. Smoking can lead to receding gums and loss of bone if it cannot develop periodontal disease. As per the studies it has several adverse effects on the gum tissue and the functioning of the immune system. Smoking diminishes the development of antibodies that fights harmful bacteria, thus enabling them breed easily. Smoking has also been instrumental in promoting inflammation and catapults bone loss. Given all these causes, quitting smoking is necessary to prevent and handle periodontal disease.

Hormonal Changes in Female

Nearly three-quarters of dental visits are made by women, even females are known to maintain better hygiene of their teeth compared to male. Hormones of female affects gum, and they are specifically prone to gum problems. Gingivitis caused due to hormone is often witnessed in some teenagers, pregnant women, and can also be caused due to the usage of birth control medication as a side effect.

Prior to Menstruation: Gingivitis often stimulates in some females few days prior to their menstruation, when the level of progesterone witnessed to be high. While ovulation period too, the gum inflammation stirs. Progesterone widens blood vessels leading to inflammation, and stops repairing collagen, the basic protein supporting the gums.

Pregnancy: Hormonal disturbance during pregnancy is also helpful to stimulate existing gingivitis that deteriorates in the second month and reaches its peak in the eighth month. Pregnancy is not the cause of gum disease, it promotes this condition and simple preventive measure can help ward off any such situation. After delivery the gingivitis caused due to pregnancy is resolved in a few months. As it can add to the risk of low-weight infants and may also become the reason for other associated complications, it is necessary for pregnant women to visit Periodontist.

Oral Contraceptives: As per a few studies it has been reported that oral contraceptives composing of synthetic progesterone desogestrel not dienogest, multiplies the threat for periodontal disease.

Menopause: After menopause lack of estrogen decreases the mineral density in bones, which often results in bone loss. Loss of bone is linked with both osteoporosis and periodontal disorders. Loss of alveolar bone (the bone that supports the tooth) can be the reason behind tooth loss in women attained menopausal stage. Gum disease is the major reason of alveolar bone loss. It has also been reported that during menopause, a rare medical condition termed as menopausal gingivostomatitis is also found in some women. In this condition the gums become shiny, dry, and bleed easily. They also feel unusual tastes like salty, acidic, spicy, and often burning in the mouth.

Grinding/Clenching Teeth

Stress, be it emotional or professional, can catapult the risk of periodontal disease by suppressing the immune mechanism and welcoming the bacterial infection. The stress of clenching and grinding of teeth puts pressure on the gums and nearby tissues and it loosens the hold of teeth on the gums. A mouth guard is necessary in this condition.


It is proved that a few drugs like oral contraceptives, heart medicines and anti-depressants also lead to detrimental oral health. It is advisable to inform your Periodontist as you do with other health care providers to get the most favorable suggestions on taking medication suiting your overall health.

Medical Conditions

There are certain medical conditions like diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disorder, osteoporosis, Down’s syndrome including AIDS that may lead to periodontal disease. It has been researched and established that diabetes promotes the possibility and severity of gum problem due to an unusual function of a few immune cells and decrease in formation of bone and collagen. The gum disorder may affect diabetics and vice-versa.

Albeit, the major cause of gum disease is plaque, but above stated are some of the most prominent factors that are instrumental in adding to the gum disease, which has been globally studied and established! If you are suffering from any such medical or physical condition it is advisable to consult your dentist to get the best Periodontal disease treatment to maintain a good dental health of your gums and teeth.

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Dental Fillings

Why live with painful and unsightly cavities when you can have them filled by our dentists in a painless procedure!
In order to repair a cavity, the decayed portion of your tooth will be removed by your dentist. The portion of the tooth occupied by the decayed material will then be filled. Fillings are utilised to repair teeth that are broken, cracked, or that have cavities.

What Are The Steps For Filling Teeth?
Initially, a local anaesthetic will be injected into the area that surrounds the tooth. Novocaine is normally used. Then, a drill, laser, or air abrasion will be utilised to remove the area that is decayed. The type of instrument that is used will depend on the preference and training of your dentist, along with the extent and location of the tooth decay.

Your dentist will then test and probe the area of decay to ensure that all decayed material has been removed. After the removal of the decay, the space to be occupied by the filling will be cleaned so that all debris and bacteria are removed. If the area of the decay is close to the root, a liner constructed of a composite resin, glass ionomer or other type of material may be used in order to provide protection to the nerve. After the insertion of the filling, it will be finished and polished.

Additional steps are needed for fillings that are tooth-coloured. Subsequent to the removal of decay and cleaning of the area, the material that is tooth-coloured will be applied in layers. A specially designed light that hardens or cures each layer is used. After the completion of the multi-layering procedure, the composite material will be shaped by your dentist, excess material will be trimmed, and it will be polished.

Filling Materials Used
There are several types of filling materials that are currently available. Teeth may be filled with porcelain, gold, silver amalgam, or tooth-coloured composite resins. Silver amalgam is comprised of mercury with tin, silver, copper, and zinc mixed with it. The extent and location of the cavity, expense of filling material, insurance coverage of the patient, and the recommendation of the dentist will determine the kind of filling material that will best suit your needs

Gold Fillings

  • Extremely durable – will usually last for the life of the patient. Will not corrode.
  • Strength – Can withstand almost any chewing forces
  • Aesthetics – Some people prefer the look of gold to sliver amalgam


  • Expense – more costly than other types of material. Can be 10 X more costly than amalgam
  • Multiple Office Visits – requires a minimum of two visits
  • Aesthetics – some patients don’t like its appearance

Silver Amalgam Fillings

  • Durability – Normally lasts longer than composites. Normally lasts ten to fifteen years or more.
  • Strength – able to withstand all chewing forces
  • Expense – costs less than gold or composite fillings


  • Generally poor aesthetics – natural colour of teeth is not matched
  • Requires more space – A portion of the tooth that is healthy must be removed, at times, to provide a large enough area for the amalgam filling.
  • Discolouration – a hue that is greyish may be imparted to the adjacent tooth structure
  • Fractures and Cracks – All teeth expand and contract with temperature changes, which can cause cracking. However, amalgam materials may expand and contract to a greater extent than other materials, leading to an increased incidence of fractures and cracks.
  • Allergies – approximately 1% of patients have allergies to the mercury that is in silver amalgam

Composite Fillings – Tooth Coloured

  • Aesthetics – composites can be closely matched to the colour of the patient’s teeth. They are particularly useful for teeth that are visible
  • Bonding – composite fillings will bond chemically with a tooth and provide structural support to the tooth
  • Versatile – can also be utilised in the repair of broken, worn, or chipped teeth
  • Space requirement – at times less tooth material is needed to be removed in comparison to silver amalgam fillings when preparing a space for this filling.


  • Reduced durability – Composite fillings do not last as long as amalgams or gold. In addition, they often don’t hold up as well under the pressure of use, particularly if they are used to fill large cavities.
  • Takes Longer – due to the process needed to fill a tooth with composite materials, it takes longer in the dentists chair to place them.
  • More than one visit – if composites are being used for onlays or inlays, it may require more than one office visit
  • Chipping – composite materials are more likely to chip than amalgams
  • Cost – composite filling may cost twice as much as amalgam fillings

Additional Filling Materials
In addition to composite resins that are tooth coloured, there are two other types of tooth-coloured fillings. Glass ionomer and ceramics.

Glass Ionomer
This material is constructed of a specific type of glass and acrylic. It is commonly utilised on fillings that are beneath the gum line and for young children. This material releases fluoride, which may protect a tooth from additional decay. Nevertheless, glass ionomer is not as strong as composite resin and more prone to fracture and wear. It normally lasts for five years or less and the expense is similar to composites.

Usually constructed of porcelain. Ceramics are stain resistant, compared to composites, but are more abrasive. Ceramics are very durable, and usually last for 15 years or more, but, they are costly, and the expense can be similar to gold.

Porcelain Crown & Veneers

Rejuvenate Your Smile with Porcelain Crown and Veneers from Monash Dental Group
Remember; beautiful and aesthetically appealing cosmetic dentistry is not a matter of chance; it demands an experienced clinician who is sensitive to your unique needs and an expert dental ceramist who leverages the art and science of dentistry to deliver optimal results. At Monash Dental Group, we boast an expert team of experienced cosmetic dentists, who have extensive experience in fitting patients with porcelain veneers and crowns. Our first-class porcelain veneers and crowns are highly effective for your unique functional and cosmetic needs.

At Monash Dental Group, our products are expertly crafted to compliment your age, gender, expectations, and facial features. We leverage the expertise of the best dental ceramists to guarantee that the veneers and crowns are of premium quality, resilient, and possess excellent craftsmanship. We work diligently to provide you with a top-quality product that beautifully compliments your face, while simultaneously restoring the function and aesthetics of your natural teeth.

Porcelain Veneers
Typically, porcelain veneers are a form of thin laminates of chinaware that are securely bonded to the surface of the tooth. For diverse dental problems, it is one of the most aesthetically appealing means of enhancing your smile. Veneers are one of the most popular treatments for restoration of chips, spaces, fractures, unshapely and discoloured teeth, or misaligned and rotated teeth. They deliver an unmatched cosmetic makeover that allows alteration of shape, position, size, and the colour of your teeth. Monash Dental Group boasts experienced cosmetic dentists who deliver exceptional results with porcelain veneers. We feature:

  • Dramatic yet aesthetically beautiful and natural cosmetic dental enhancement
  • Durable, high quality, and permanent
  • Enhanced self esteem

The procedure typically requires two appointments. At first, the tooth is prepared for minimal reduction to make enough space for the porcelain veneer. A mould of the tooth is taken for fabrication, which takes approximately 2 weeks. In the next visit, the permanent veneer is bonded in place.

Crowns are a rigid and strong cap that restores the tooth to its natural function and anatomic contours, as well as protects the underlying tooth. In certain conditions, where veneers are not possible, crowns are a suitable option. Some of the scenarios in which crowns may be used include tooth fractures, large restorations, functionally compromised teeth, history of root canal therapy, and acute damage due to decay. There are a wide range of choices available in crowns and bridges.

Dental crown procedures take just two appointments, depending on the condition of your teeth and gums. First, the tooth is prepared for reduction and an impression is taken for fabrication. A temporary, plastic crown in fitted while the mould is being fabricated. In the next visit, the temporary crown is removed and the final crown is secured permanently into position. The fabrication procedure may take time depending on the type of crown.

Monash Dental Group is an expert in crowns and veneers, delivering matchless quality and desired results. The key benefits are:

  • Extensive protection and support to the compromised or damaged teeth
  • Natural and aesthetically enhanced appearance
  • Restoration of full functions and a confident smile

Contact the professionals at Monash Dental Group for more details on porcelain veneers and crowns. We guarantee excellent quality and fantastic results in a cost-effective manner.